After an overview of the general fiscal and non-fiscal measures for stimulating the Research and Development system (R&D), with a punctual analysis of some countries, the paper examines Romania’s situation from the bibliometric standpoint. The types of incentives are presented and analysed. The awarding programme is viewed as incentive, as its impact consists in an increase of bibliometric performances. The analysis underlines that the paper awarding programme leads to an enhancement of Romania’s bibliometric performances and that it is necessary to develop similar programmes for the research institutions, which can result in increasing publication of research outputs. Alongside Romania’s global performances, the performances obtained in three broad fields (Chemistry, Economics and Agronomy), over an interval of about 15 years, are analysed. Bibliometric performances demonstrate the connection with fiscal incentives, but performances depend on several aspects, including institutional management and the value of researchers.