Journal of Scientometric Research, 2021, 10, 444-455.
Published: January 2022
Type: Research Article
Sabuj Kumar Chaudhuri
Department of Library and Information Science, University of Calcutta, Kolkata, West Bengal, INDIA.
Global Innovation Index (2019) recognised Burundi, Malawi, Mozambique and Rwanda, four low income countries in Sub-Saharan Africa who have performed impressively in innovation against their respective Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Identification of technology needs of any country plays a key role in preparing policy measures and effective action towards sustainable development. Technology Needs Assessments Project, implemented through the United Nations Environment Programme with Technical University of Denmark (UNEP DTU) sponsored by the Global Environment Facility between 2010 and 2018, completed two phases of Technology Needs Assessments (TNAs) in these four countries. There is one common technology need for mitigation in all these four countries has been chalked out i.e., “Ensuring access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern energy for all” which adheres to the 7th goal of Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) of the Agenda 2030 of the UNEP and the goal of Agenda 2063 of the African Union (AU) for the transformation of traditional sources to modern sources of energy for ensuring the access of clean and affordable electricity to all the people of Africa. Access to electricity remains very low, ranging from 11.02% to 34.72% of their population with lowest in Burundi and highest in Rwanda. They are not only energy stressed countries but they are also among the poorest nations of the world. This article critically investigates and reviews the Science, Technology and Innovation Policy (STIP) and programmes, S&T infrastructure, Tertiary education, R&D investment, Patent profiles for sustainable or clean energy from 2000-2020 in these four low income countries of Africa. Present study indicates how the development trajectory of the innovation ecosystem of these countries can be a root enabler to achieve the goals formulated in SDG 7 of the UNEP and the Agenda 2063 of the AU as well.